Issue 6 | ,

剖析掌握外语的学习过程 – 漫谈个人经验

by on 三月 29, 2016

双语环境

首先,我想说我很庆幸出生于新加坡:在新加坡,当地报纸是以英语、汉语、马来语和泰米尔语出版的。此外,在学校,第二语言是一门必修科目,而选择何种第二语言取决于学生的种族背景。因为我是华人,所以在小学和中学修读中文。新加坡学生也有修读第三门语言的机会,譬如法语或者西班牙语。我不敢肯定浸润在双语学习环境中是否能加强个人的认知能力,但是我必须说,以英语为第一语言以及汉语为第二语言的教育制度为我之后的外语学习奠定了基础。我还记得,在中学的时候,除了中文课之外,我一天中的大部分课程通常是以英语授课的。放学后,除了与奶奶说潮州话,我在家里会与家人们说普通话。虽然我不能代表所有的新加坡人,但是生长在如此复杂的语言环境中让我更能够理清各种语言之间的关系。在此,我想借这个机会,感谢我的母校—武吉班让政府中学:我能够通晓双语全归功于中英文老师的教导有方。在伦敦求学两年多也使我更加适应不同种类的英语,譬如标准新加坡英语与标准英国英语有一些差异: 新加坡人把 ‘flip-flops’ (“人字拖”) 和 ‘slippers’ (“室内拖鞋”) 交替使用,而对英国人来说, ‘slippers’ 是冬天时穿的厚拖鞋。另外,攻读经济学学士,又辅修经济史,令我对经济相关专业学术用语也感到特别好奇,我便于伦敦政治经济学院 (简称:政经学院) 的伦敦商务孔子学院上高级商务汉语课,借此机会保持我的中文水平。而在此之前,因为我未曾受过中文专业用语和中英翻译的正规训练,所以现在在学习汉语的过程中,我特别享受学习与运用这些专业语汇。 

缘由,目的和决心

想要学习外语的念头是在 2012 年第一次浮现在我的脑海里的。当时我还在服兵役,却已经知道我即将前往伦敦政经学院,便想到法语在西欧区域可能有用。因此,我开始在新加坡的法国文化协会 (Alliance Française) 上法语课。过了一段时间,不知不觉与这个罗曼语言建立了深厚的感情。坦白说,起初是有些困难,尤其是在大多数朋友不会说法语的环境里学习法语。庆幸的是,2013 年 9 月来到伦敦之后我认识了一些精通法语的朋友,于是情况便有所好转。这些新朋友常常鼓励我,也给予了我很多帮助,有几位还甚至邀请我去他们的家——位于巴黎、布雷斯特和其他美丽的法国城市。有了他们的热心帮助,我对学习外语的热忱也日益增加。因此,我发愤图强,下定决心要在2015年结束之前参加高级法语鉴定文凭的考试 (le Diplôme approfondi de langue française [DALF] C2)。有了明确的目标后,我更有学习的动力;我不断提醒自己要继续努力,向考取该文凭的目标迈进。 

我所有的经验当中最有助于加强法语水平的一项 ,是在法国与寄宿家庭相处时,用大量的宝贵时间同法国朋友和他们的家人以法语沟通,以熟悉许多常用词句的说法 。正因如此,我才能从只会说两三句简单的句子发展到能流利地说法语。然而也必须补充,我在最合适的时间遇到了我的寄宿家庭。当时我刚通过 A2,正在上 B1 的课程,已经熟悉简单问题以及关键句子,但我并不拘泥于课本上的用法,而是让我的语言更加地道。与此同时,我对法国文化也有了更深一层的了解。我深信,一门新语言就像一本护照,能够带领我进入另一种文化;这也是我坚持不懈,继续努力学习法语的原因正如语言天才 Tim Doner 所说 :“语言是见证文化历史和世界观演变的活化石,而不是一座需要时时被擦亮,代表着个人虚有荣誉的奖杯。” 对我来说,丰富的跨文化沟通与交流的确给予了我一种推动力量,让我在潜意识里仅仅想要享受使用法语所带来的乐趣。去年成功考获的 DALF C2 的成绩也不再重要,无形的好处其实更具意义。还有,必须铭记的是,应付语言考试不应该是学习外语过程中唯一的目标;对于外语学习者,不断加强自身外语水平才应是自己的追求和信念。我很高兴地说,我有机会在即将于法国芒通 (Menton) 举行的地中海模拟联合国 (Mediterranean Model United Nations) 以法语来辩论。 

开始学习新外语,语言之间的联系,不断练习

我不清楚当时自己的想法,但是我修读法语一年之后,决定开始学习日语。在语法方面,日语和英语、汉语及法语大有不同。起初,在日语中所使用的助词看似生疏,但不久后我意识到中文也有助词。因为之前在学习汉语的时候没有接触过专门术语,所以并没有特别注意。譬如,中文的 “吗” 和日语的 “か” (ka) 都用于句末,表示疑问语气。我觉得,注意语言之间的联系是非常有用的。因此,我开始在语法、词汇与声音方面关注语言之间的相似点。当我发现到法语的 “u” 与汉语的 “ü” 的发音居然一样的时候,我感到特别惊讶。学习日语接近一年,我决定再开始学习另一门外语:德语。我个人认为,修读愈多的语言其实会让学习语言的过程愈容易。但我在此还是必须承认,开始学习德语的时候有些诧异,因为得慢慢习惯把一些动词用于句末。

当一个人习惯于找出语言之间的关系时,他便会更倾向于了解他们细微的区别。对于西班牙语初学者的我来说,我一直将它与法语联系在一起,有时候也会和英语作比较。其次,西班牙语和日语有相似的元音,这对我的学习过程有所帮助。虽然亚洲语言和欧洲语言有不同的应用形式,但是有些发音能够通用。此外,我在学习德语的时候,也喜欢寻找一些英文字的来源。说德语的时候,鼻音不如说法语的时候那么重,这使得我刻意用两种不同的口音说这两种语言。不仅如此,和法语相比,德语包含更多不同的方言,很显然历史事件对一个国家的官方语言所带来的影响是持久的。除了在语言之间寻找联系之外,如果想提高语言水平,与母语者交谈显然是十分重要的。我很庆幸我不仅在伦敦中心求学,而且还在世界最国际性的大学之一学习,因为这使得我能够与来自世界各地的同学们交流。我在慕尼黑、乌尔姆及海德堡与寄宿家庭一起生活的时候,也发觉到德语方言与标准德语听起来非常不同。此外,我也热爱与日本朋友谈话;最近也开始与西班牙朋友交谈。在伦敦,很多大学都为在寻找语伴的学生提供便利条件,还有很多热衷于语言的人也不时主动安排一些语言交流聚会。我非常珍惜这些机会。

延续对语言的热忱并乐在其中

学习外语的两个主要挑战是:第一,是否能从一开始就下定决心,鼓起勇气坚持说外语;第二,在学习的途中,能否保持对外语的热忱。除了学习外语的经济价值之外个人内在的动力也是坚持下去的关键。我在学习外语的过程中,交到了来自不同文化背景的朋友,并且有机会对他们的文化有更深入的了解。此外,我也经历过不少奇妙的时刻,譬如在柏林的一个语言交流聚会,我遇到了一位斯洛文尼亚人。他用台语跟我讲述他在台湾所体验过的事件,而我用普通话来回答 (因为那时我的台语说得不是特别流利)。我非常珍视这些宝贵时刻,这些经历不断地激励我抱着百折不挠的态度,在学习外语的过程中再接再厉,坚持不懈。

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